Report on Commercial Vessel Fouling in California: Analysis, Evaluation, and Recommendations to Reduce Nonindigenous Species Release from the Non-Ballast Water Vector

This report was prepared for the California Legislature pursuant to the Marine Invasive Species Act of 2003 (Act), codified as California Public Resources Code (PRC) Sections 71203-71210.5. The Act enhanced and reauthorized the original law, the Ballast Water Management and Control for Nonindigenous Species Act of 1999. In accordance with the Act, the Commission was charged with preparing an analysis of vectors (i.e., mechanism or pathway) other than ballast water, and relative risks of those vectors, for the introduction of nonindigenous species (NIS) from commercial vessels (Section 71210.5 of the PRC). Per the law, the analysis shall include the release of NIS from vessel hulls, sea chests (recessed boxes where water may be pumped aboard for engine cooling or for ballast), sea suction grids (grates that cover water intakes), other hull apertures, in-water propellers, chains, anchors, piping, and tanks, and shall be conducted in consultation with a Technical Advisory Group (TAG). This report summarizes the results of this analysis and offers recommendations to reduce the discharge of NIS from vessel vectors other than ballast water.